Maximizing allocation and reallocation of capacity – people, tools, materials, technology, and facilities – is a crucial factor in creating the most productive, effective, and efficient portfolios. Portfolio Management Professionals (PfMP) often leverage supply/demand management and scenario analysis techniques to achieve this.

Table of Contents


Supply and demand management, at its core, is the process of predicting, balancing and controlling the supply of resources against the demand for them.

For example, in an organization, the demand for technical professionals might skyrocket during a specific software project. That’s the demand side of things. Supply, on the other hand, relates to the availability of such experts either from inside or outside the organization.

To optimize capacity allocation using supply and demand management, PfMPs can follow a systematic approach:

  • Analyze & Predict Demand: Understand the ongoing and potential projects’ resource needs by analyzing data from a variety of sources – historic data, workflow projections, market trends etc.
  • Assess Supply: Determine the existing supply by assessing human resources, available technology, tools, and materials.
  • Bridge Supply-Demand Gap: Create hiring plans, resource reallocation plans, or capacity development plans based on the assessed gap.


Scenario analysis is a process of analyzing potential future events by considering alternative plausible outcomes or sequences of events. It’s used heavily in portfolio management —especially for risk management and strategic planning.

For instance, PfMPs can forecast what would happen if a critical expert resigns during project execution, or how would projects be affected with a 30% cut in the budget.

Applying scenario analysis involves the following steps:

  • Identify Influential Factors: Spot key elements that would have high impact on allocation or reallocation plans
  • Develop Scenarios: Build possible scenarios based on these factors
  • Analyze Potential Impact: Estimate the impact of each scenario on allocation plans
  • Plan Response Strategy: Formulate strategies on how best to address each analyzed scenario

The figures below illustrate supply/demand management and scenario analysis:

Supply/Demand Management:

Status Demand Supply Gap
Current 100 apps 80 apps 20 apps
Forecast 150 apps 100 apps 50 apps

Scenario Analysis:

Scenarios Impact Response Strategy
Resignation of key expert Delay in project delivery Cross-skilling, Hiring, Collaboration
Budget Cut of 30% Resource crunch, compromised quality Prioritization, Efficiency measures, Seek additional funding

Together, supply/demand management and scenario analysis provide a comprehensive toolset for PfMPs. It helps in making informed decisions related to resource utilization, risk management, and strategic planning. As a result, portfolio efficiency and effectiveness can be enhanced significantly.

Remember, while these techniques can guide decision-making, they are not fool-proof. The key lies in creating an environment that encourages continuous learning, adapting, and evolving based on actual scenarios as they unfold.


Creating well-managed, efficient portfolios is both an art and a science. Understanding and leveraging techniques like supply/demand management and scenario analysis can go a long way in creating strong, optimized portfolios. As the environment and demands change, these techniques will continue to evolve, offering newer ways to maximize portfolio efficiency and effectiveness.

Practice Test

True/False: Capacity allocation involves only manpower and technology?

  • True
  • False

Answer: False.

Explanation: Capacity allocation involves not only manpower and technology but also other resources like tools, materials, finances and facilities.

Multiple Select: Scenario analysis techniques can involve analyzing which of the following?

  • a) Trade-off Analysis
  • b) Impact Analysis
  • c) Risk Analysis
  • d) Cost Analysis

Answer: a) Trade-off Analysis, b) Impact Analysis, c) Risk Analysis, d) Cost Analysis.

Explanation: Scenario analysis techniques often involve considering different aspects such as trade-offs, impact, risk and cost.

True/False: Implementing capacity allocation strategies can increase portfolio efficiency?

  • True
  • False

Answer: True.

Explanation: Implementing capacity allocation strategies can help to distribute resources effectively for better productivity, thus increasing portfolio efficiency.

Single Select: When managing supply and demand, which of the following is a key element in decision making?

  • a) Market Trends.
  • b) Customer Needs.
  • c) Product Availability.
  • d) All of the above.

Answer: d) All of the above.

Explanation: When managing supply and demand, all these factors: market trends, customer needs and product availability are crucial in making decisions.

True/False: The ultimate goal of capacity allocation is to maximize resource utilisation?

  • True
  • False

Answer: True.

Explanation: The ultimate goal of capacity allocation is indeed to maximize resource utilisation, increase productivity and achieve cost efficiency.

Multiple Select: Businesses use which of the following for capacity allocation?

  • a) Historical Data
  • b) Future Projections
  • c) Current Market Trend
  • d) All of the above

Answer: d) All of the above.

Explanation: Businesses consider all these factors (historical data, future projections, current market trends) while making decisions for capacity allocation.

Single Select: Which of the following is NOT a technique used in scenario analysis?

  • a) Replacing variables
  • b) Determining outcomes for different scenarios
  • c) Ignoring possible scenarios
  • d) Considering all impacting factors

Answer: c) Ignoring possible scenarios.

Explanation: Ignoring possible scenarios is not a technique used in scenario analysis. On the contrary, it is about considering all possible scenarios.

True/False: Capacity allocation involves the strategic usage of available resources?

  • True
  • False

Answer: True.

Explanation: Capacity allocation does involve the strategic usage of available resources to increase throughput and productivity.

Multiple Select: In capacity allocation, efficiency refers to:

  • a) Cost effectiveness
  • b) Resource utilization
  • c) Timeliness
  • d) Resource allocation

Answer: a) Cost effectiveness, b) Resource utilization.

Explanation: In capacity allocation, efficiency mainly refers to cost-effectiveness and optimal resource utilization.

Single Select: Which of the following methods can be used to measure the effectiveness of capacity allocation?

  • a) Cost-Benefit analysis
  • b) Net Present Value method
  • c) None of the above
  • d) Both a and b

Answer: d) Both a and b.

Explanation: Both Cost-Benefit analysis and Net Present Value method can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of capacity allocation.

True/False: One of the key benefits of capacity allocation is optimizing operational efficiency?

  • True
  • False

Answer: True.

Explanation: Yes, capacity allocation ensures the optimal distribution of resources, resulting in enhanced operational efficiency.

Single Select: One of the main challenges in capacity allocation is:

  • a) Lack of resources
  • b) Inadequate funds
  • c) Ensuring right allocation to right projects at right time
  • d) All of the above.

Answer: c) Ensuring right allocation to right projects at right time.

Explanation: The crux of capacity allocation is to make strategic decisions to ensure resources are rightly allocated to the right projects at the right time.

Interview Questions

What is supply/demand management in the context of portfolio efficiency and effectiveness?

Supply/demand management involves constantly adjusting and optimizing the allocation and reallocation of resources based on fluctuations in supply and demand. In portfolio management, this ensures that the right resources are available at the right time, maximizing efficiency and effectiveness.

How does scenario analysis contribute to portfolio efficiency?

Scenario analysis allows portfolio managers to test potential future scenarios and predict their impacts on the portfolio. This predictive modeling helps to mitigate the risks and maximize the return by making advanced strategic adjustments.

What factors need to be considered when allocating or reallocating capacity in portfolio management?

Factors include the availability and cost of resources, the projected return on investment, the timeline for each component within the portfolio, and the current and future market conditions.

How could technology contribute to consolidate allocation/reallocation of capacity in portfolio management?

Technology, such as portfolio management tools, can automate the process of dynamically allocating resources in response to changes in supply and demand, improving efficiency, reducing errors, and providing valuable data analysis.

How could scenario analysis help in enhancing financial capacity in portfolio management?

Scenario analysis can provide simulations of various financial scenarios, providing insights into potential outcomes of different investments, enabling better financial capacity planning and decision-making.

What is the role of personnel in consolidated allocation/reallocation of capacity?

Personnel plays a vital role as they are responsible for implementing the strategies and plans, managing the allocated resources, and making key decisions that contribute to portfolio efficiency and effectiveness.

Why is the consideration of facilities crucial in the consolidated allocation/reallocation of capacity?

Facilities represent a critical physical resource for many portfolios. Considering their availability, cost, and utilization can enhance the portfolio allocation decisions, thereby improving efficiency and effectiveness.

What is meant by portfolio efficiency and effectiveness in the context of capacity allocation?

Portfolio efficiency refers to optimizing the performance of the portfolio with minimum input, while effectiveness refers to the portfolio’s ability to achieve its set goals and objectives. Proper capacity allocation is crucial for both.

How does the market influence the consolidated allocation/reallocation of capacity?

Market conditions can impact the availability and cost of resources, the demand for portfolio outcomes, and the risks associated with different investments. Hence, frequent market analysis is essential for efficient allocation.

How can supply/demand management support flexibility within portfolio management?

Effective supply/demand management allows for a faster and more accurate response to changes, granting the flexibility to shift priorities and resources as per the evolving conditions and demands.

How consolidation helps in optimizing allocation/reallocation of capacity?

Consolidation helps in pull together data from various sources to provide a comprehensive view of available resources, making it easier to plan, analyze, and make strategic allocation/reallocation decisions.

What is the impact of regulatory environments on the allocation of capacity in portfolio management?

Regulatory environments can affect the capacity allocation in many ways, such as the availability of resources, requirements for compliance, and financial implications. Therefore, understanding these regulations is critical in capacity planning.

What steps can a portfolio manager take in order to improve portfolio effectiveness?

Steps include utilizing scenario analysis techniques, regular monitoring of the market and regulatory environment, investing in appropriate technology, developing skilled personnel, and efficient supply/demand management.

Can overallocation of resources lead to inefficiencies in portfolio management?

Yes, overallocation can lead to inefficiencies like increased costs and underutilized resources. It’s important to align the allocation of resources with the projected demands to ensure portfolio efficiency.

How can a portfolio manager optimize the financial resources within a portfolio?

They can optimize by performing regular financial scenario analyses, taking into account market predictions, risk assessment, projected returns of individual components, and maintaining a balance between high-risk and low-risk investments.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *