Practice Test

True or False: Strategic planning is the highest level of planning.

  • True
  • False

Answer: True.

Explanation: Strategic planning refers to the process of establishing an organization’s vision, goals, values, and missions. This is the highest level of planning where the overall direction of the organization is determined.

In project management, tactical planning refers to:

  • A. Long-term goals and visions.
  • B. Top-level decision making.
  • C. Day-to-day operations.
  • D. Short-term realistic plans to achieve strategic plans.

Answer: D. Short-term realistic plans to achieve strategic plans.

Explanation: Tactical planning is the second level of planning where the strategies formulated at the top-level are divided into achievable plans.

True or False: The planning that involves determining specific tasks needed to meet objectives is called operational planning.

  • True
  • False

Answer: True.

Explanation: Operational planning is the lowest level of planning that involves determining specific tasks and responsibilities.

In the levels of planning, who are most likely to be involved in strategic planning?

  • A. Team Members
  • B. Project Managers
  • C. Senior Management
  • D. Stakeholders

Answer: C. Senior Management

Explanation: Strategic planning is often carried out by individuals at the highest levels of the organization such as senior management.

Which of the following factors is NOT a consideration during the strategic planning process?

  • A. Budget constraints
  • B. Competitive market environment
  • C. Leadership style of the project manager
  • D. Organizational strengths and weaknesses

Answer: C. Leadership style of the project manager.

Explanation: The leadership style of the project manager usually doesn’t influence strategic planning. It is more about the organization’s mission, vision, external factors, and internal capacity.

True or False: Operational planning covers the longest time frame.

  • True
  • False

Answer: False.

Explanation: Operational planning covers the shortest time frame, often extending from weeks to a year, while strategic planning covers the longest time frame.

What does the tactical planning level primarily focus on?

  • A. Vision and mission
  • B. Implementation of strategic plans
  • C. Daily operation management
  • D. Risk Management

Answer: B. Implementation of strategic plans

Explanation: Tactical planning focuses on the implementation of strategies developed during strategic planning.

True or False: Stakeholder engagement is a vital part of strategic planning.

  • True
  • False

Answer: True.

Explanation: Stakeholders can provide valuable input, support, and resources, so their engagement is crucial for successful strategic planning.

In the levels of planning, who typically handles operational planning?

  • A. Senior management
  • B. Project managers
  • C. Team members
  • D. Stakeholders

Answer: B. Project managers

Explanation: While senior management usually handles strategic planning, project managers and team managers handle operational planning within the project.

Which level of planning focuses on routinely managing the organization’s processes?

  • A. Tactical Planning
  • B. Strategic Planning
  • C. Operational Planning
  • D. Crisis Planning

Answer: C. Operational Planning

Explanation: Operational planning is the level that focuses on directing regular organizational processes from day to-day or annually.

True or False: Risk mitigation is not an aspect of strategic planning.

  • True
  • False

Answer: False.

Explanation: Strategic planning involves risk forecasting and it should provide strategic choices to mitigate potential risks.

In project management, a backlog is primarily a component of which level of planning?

  • A. Strategic planning
  • B. Tactical planning
  • C. Operational planning
  • D. Crisis planning

Answer: C. Operational planning

Explanation: A product backlog detailing the tasks necessary for project execution is typically a component of operational planning.

True or False: Tactical planning often involves medium-term planning, usually one to three years ahead.

  • True
  • False

Answer: True.

Explanation: Tactical planning bridges the gap between strategic and operational planning, typically focusing on the medium term, about one to three years ahead.

Strategic planning considers which of the following factors?

  • A. External macro-environment
  • B. Internal strengths and weaknesses
  • C. Short term project goals
  • D. Both A and B

Answer: D. Both A and B

Explanation: Strategic planning considers both the external macro-environment, such as market competitors and trends, and internal factors like strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT).

True or False: Operational planning does not have to align with strategic and tactical planning.

  • True
  • False

Answer: False.

Explanation: Operational planning should align with strategic and tactical planning, executing the lower-level tasks necessary to achieve larger goals.

Interview Questions

What are the three key levels of planning in agile?

The three key levels of planning in Agile are: strategic, tactical, and operational.

What is strategic planning in agile?

Strategic planning is the highest level of planning in agile project management. It involves defining the vision, goals, and key initiatives for a project. This level of planning sets the direction and priorities for the project.

What is the tactical level of planning in agile?

The tactical level of planning refers to planning done for each iteration or sprint. It includes creating tasks, assigning resources, and estimating work for each task. The aim of tactical planning is to ensure the strategic goals are achieved efficiently.

What is operational planning in agile?

Operational planning occurs daily during each sprint or iteration. It involves planning the activities for the day, for each team member, to meet the sprint goals.

What role does strategic planning play in the PMI-ACP exam?

Understanding strategic planning is essential for the PMI-ACP exam as it forms the base for the entire project, guiding the team’s decisions and actions throughout the project.

Which planning level does Release Planning pertain to and why?

Release Planning pertains to the Tactical level of planning as it deals with deciding which features or user stories will be delivered in the upcoming releases, sprints, or iterations, which directly contributes to achieving the strategic objectives.

How does operational planning contribute to project success?

Operational planning helps manage daily activities, making sure all team members are working towards the sprint goal. It improves team coordination and ensures that the work is on track, thereby contributing to project success.

How often is tactical planning done in agile projects?

Tactical planning is done before every sprint or iteration, which can be every 1-4 weeks, depending on the project’s needs and the team’s context.

How agile principles relate to the levels of planning?

Agile principles emphasize flexibility, responsiveness to change, and customer collaboration. These apply to all levels of planning – strategic planning is flexible and sets the direction, tactical planning is responsive to feedback and changes, and operational planning focuses on daily collaboration and adjustments.

What is the outcome of strategic planning in agile?

The outcome of strategic planning in Agile is a defined project vision, a set of goals, and a roadmap or high-level plan for the project.

How does Tactical planning ensure quality in agile projects?

In tactical planning, every user story or feature is broken down into smaller tasks, estimated, and prioritized. This task breakdown and estimation help ensure that work is manageable and high quality because each task can be completed within a sprint and is not too large or complex.

What is a Product Backlog in relation to the Strategic level of planning?

The Product Backlog is a list of all potential features or user stories for the project. It is a key output of the strategic level of planning as it represents the goals and vision of the project, and it is used to guide the tactical and operational planning processes.

How are the three levels of planning interlinked in agile?

The three levels of planning are interlinked as the strategic plan sets the direction, the tactical plan carries out the strategic plan in each iteration or sprint, and operational planning ensures that the sprint work is coordinated and on track to meet tactical and, ultimately, strategic goals.

What is the key benefit of the three levels of planning in agile?

The key benefit is flexibility and responsiveness to change. At each level of planning, feedback is taken and incorporated into the next level. This allows the agile project to adapt to changes, while still ensuring that the project remains aligned with its strategic goals.

What document is often the main output of Tactical level planning?

The Sprint Backlog, which contains the chosen user stories for the upcoming sprint and their detailed tasks, is often the main output of the tactical level of planning.

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