Practice Test

True or False: The project manager is only responsible for ensuring quality at the end of the project, not throughout the process.

• True
• False

Answer: False

Explanation: The Project Manager should be engaged in quality management throughout the project. It is a continuous process that aims to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance at every stage of the project.

Quality management includes which of the following?

• A) Planning and Implementation
• B) Only Planning
• C) Only Implementation
• D) None of the above

Answer: A) Planning and Implementation

Explanation: Quality management should include both planning for quality and also implementing those plans, with all efforts being directed towards preventing errors and defects in the final project deliverable.

True or False: The cost of quality includes both the cost of conformance to requirements and the cost of non-conformance.

• True
• False

Answer: True

Explanation: Cost of quality refers to the total costs incurred to prevent non-conformance to requirements, including both costs of conformance (prevention and appraisal costs) and costs of non-conformance (internal and external failure costs).

Which of these theories is used as a method for quality control in project management?

• A) Pareto Principle
• B) Taylorism
• C) Path-Goal Theory
• D) Contingency Theory

Answer: A) Pareto Principle

Explanation: The Pareto Principle, also known as the 80/20 rule, is a common method for quality control. It suggests that 80% of your problems come from 20% of the causes, so focusing on that 20% can yield significant improvements.

The process to identify quality requirements and/or standards for the project is called __.

• A) Quality Control
• B) Quality Assurance
• C) Quality Planning
• D) Quality Improvement

Answer: C) Quality Planning

Explanation: Quality Planning is the process of determining the quality standards that are applicable to the project and identifying how those standards will be met.

True or False: Quality cost is only the cost associated with quality control activities.

• True
• False

Answer: False

Explanation: Quality cost includes the cost of prevention, appraisal, and all of the direct and indirect costs associated with failures, not just quality control activities.

Preventive actions reduce the probability of:

• A) Negative Risk
• B) Positive Risk
• C) Both Positive and Negative Risk
• D) Neither positive nor negative risk

Answer: A) Negative Risk

Explanation: Preventive actions are proactive measures taken to eliminate the potential causes of non-conformance and thereby reduce the probability of negative risk.

In project Management, PDCA stands for__.

• A) Plan, Do, Check, Act
• B) Plan, Do, Correct, Act
• C) Plan, Done, Check, Act
• D) Plan, Design, Check, Act

Answer: A) Plan, Do, Check, Act

Explanation: PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products.

Six Sigma methodology aims to keep the defects to:

• A) 4 per million opportunities
• B) 1 per thousand opportunities
• C) 1 per hundred opportunities
• D) 10 per thousand opportunities

Answer: A) 4 per million opportunities

Explanation: The Six Sigma methodology aims to reduce the defects to a level of 4 per million opportunities, making it a standard of high quality.

True or False: Quality Assurance looks for fault in the end product.

• True
• False

Answer: False

Explanation: Quality Assurance focuses on the process used to create the product, while Quality Control or Inspection is the process of verifying the end product/service against quality standards/criteria.

Interview Questions

What is the purpose of quality management in a project?

The purpose of quality management in a project is to ensure that the final product or deliverable meets the specified requirements and customer expectations. It involves planning, assurance, and control activities to identify and manage quality requirements, measure project performance, and ensure that any deviations from the standards are addressed and corrected.

What key components make up quality management?

The key components of quality management include quality planning (identifying quality standards and how they will be met), quality assurance (overseeing the development process to ensure standards are being followed), and quality control (inspecting the end product to ensure it meets the intended standards).

What is a quality audit in project management?

A quality audit is a systematic, independent process of reviewing, examining, or inspecting a project to verify whether project activities comply with the project’s defined quality standards, operational processes, and policies.

What does the term “quality” mean in project management?

In project management, the term “quality” refers to the degree to which a project’s deliverables meet the established standards or requirements. It is also about ensuring customer satisfaction and meeting or exceeding customer expectations.

What role does a project manager play in quality management?

The project manager plays a critical role in quality management. They are responsible for establishing the project’s quality standards, ensuring they are met through sound project execution, and involving all team members in the review and improvement of project processes and outcomes.

What is the Cost of Quality (COQ) in project management?

The Cost of Quality (COQ) in project management refers to expenses incurred to prevent, detect and rectify poor quality in projects. It includes costs associated with prevention, appraisal, internal failure and external failure.

How does the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle apply to quality management in project management?

The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle is a method for controlling and constantly improving processes and products. In project quality management, “planning” involves setting quality targets and methods; “doing” involves executing the planned methods; “checking” involves monitoring and evaluating performance against the planned quality levels; and “acting” involves taking improvement actions based on the results of the check phase.

What is the Pareto Principle in quality management?

The Pareto Principle, or the 80/20 rule, asserts that approximately 80% of problems are typically caused by about 20% of the causes. This principle helps project managers focus efforts on those problems or defects that will have the greatest impact on project quality.

How does a quality management plan benefit a project?

A quality management plan benefits a project by providing a clear and consistent framework for ensuring that the project’s deliverables meet the set quality standards. It enhances efficiency, reduces waste, minimizes rework, and increases customer satisfaction.

What is the role of quality metrics in project management?

Quality metrics provide a way for the project manager to quantitatively measure the project’s quality objectives. They help to monitor and control the quality of both the project management processes and the project’s deliverables. Metrics might include error rates, failure rates, speed of delivery, customer satisfaction scores, etc.

What tools are commonly used in quality control?

Common tools used in quality control include control charts, Pareto charts, flowcharts, histogram, scatter diagram, cause and effect diagram, and check sheets.

What is Six Sigma in the context of project management?

Six Sigma is a quality management methodology that seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes.

What is the primary difference between quality assurance and quality control?

Quality assurance is a proactive process that starts even before the work on the deliverable has started, while quality control is a reactive process and it comes into the picture once the work on the deliverable has been completed. The key difference is that quality assurance is about preventing defects whereas quality control is about finding and correcting defects.

What is meant by ‘Continuous Improvement’ in the context of Quality Management?

Continuous Improvement, often known as Kaizen, is a long-term approach to work that systematically seeks to achieve small, incremental improvements in processes in order to enhance efficiency and quality.

How does Risk Management interact with Quality Management in a project?

Risk management and quality management are closely linked. Quality management seeks to ensure that the project meets its objectives and that deliverables are of acceptable quality, whilst risk management seeks to understand and control the risks that could prevent these objectives from being achieved. So, implementing quality management can help reduce project risks, and managing risks can help achieve higher quality.

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