Stakeholder collaboration is integral in project management. The project manager must maintain open channels of communication, proactively address concerns, and negotiate compromises when necessary. This leads to better alignment between project goals and stakeholder expectations, resulting in higher chances of project success.

Table of Contents

2: Identifying Stakeholders

The first step in collaboration is stakeholder identification. Stakeholders can be internal (team members, executives) or external (customers, investors, public bodies). A Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) recommendation is creating a stakeholder register that lists all relevant stakeholders with their information and interests in the project. This can help set a basis for your interaction strategy.


Stakeholder Role Interest Level Impact Level
Marc Smith Team Member High High
Jennifer Pearl Executive Medium High
Joseph Gilbert Regulator Low Medium

3: Stakeholder Engagement Plan

A stakeholder engagement plan outlines the communication strategies to be utilized for various stakeholders. It provides a systematic approach to stakeholder collaboration and helps ensure regular engagement. The plan considers the importance and influence levels of stakeholders, and preferred communication channels and frequencies.

4: Managing Collaborations

When managing collaborations, a project manager must build mutual trust, respect and understanding with stakeholders. Encouraging feedback and input, acknowledging concerns and effectively managing conflicts are crucial elements. Remember to take into account cultural and personal differences to ensure a positive collaboration environment.

5: Monitoring Stakeholder Engagement

The project manager must regularly assess stakeholder engagement levels. This identifies early signs of disengagement or dissatisfaction which can then be promptly addressed.

6: Cross-organizational Collaboration

In cases where a project cuts across various departmental or organizational boundaries, the complexity of stakeholder collaboration can escalate. In such situations, project managers should strive to create synergies and common ground, to deliver project success while maintaining stakeholder satisfaction.


Imagine you are managing a project to implement a new CRM system across all company departments. Different department heads become your major stakeholders. Each department might have different requirements and expectations toward the new system. Open discussions, negotiation and reaching common ground among these stakeholders will be crucial for the project’s success. In such cases, beneficial collaboration and effective stakeholder management can ensure that all departments are satisfied with the newly implemented system, and the project achieves its intended goals.

In conclusion, collaboration with stakeholders is an art that project managers must master. The PMP examination places great emphasis on this and an understanding of the concepts, along with practical examples, can greatly enhance your chance of not only acing the exam but also executing your future projects with greater ease. If these engagements are handled well, the project manager can leverage these stakeholder relationships for the effective execution of a project thereby delivering value to all the involved parties.

Practice Test

True or False: Stakeholder engagement and involvement is not important in project management.

  • True
  • False

Answer: False

Explanation: Effective stakeholder engagement is crucial in project management as it ensures that all project requirements are met and supports successful project execution.

The process to identify the people, groups or organizations that can impact or be impacted by a project is known as:

  • A. Stakeholder Analysis
  • B. Stakeholder Communication
  • C. Risk Management
  • D. Cost Management

Answer: A. Stakeholder Analysis

Explanation: Stakeholder analysis is the process of identifying who the stakeholders are in a project – those who can impact or be impacted by the project.

Which of the following is not a part of stakeholder management?

  • A. Identifying stakeholders
  • B. Planning stakeholder engagement
  • C. Managing stakeholder engagement
  • D. Risk Management

Answer: D. Risk Management

Explanation: Risk management is a part of project management but not specifically a part of stakeholder management which involves identifying, planning and managing stakeholder engagement.

True or False: Stakeholder’s influence on the project diminishes as the project progresses.

  • True
  • False

Answer: True

Explanation: This concept is known as the Law of Diminishing Influence. It suggests that stakeholders have maximum influence at the start of the project and their influence tends to diminish as the project progresses.

Stakeholder engagement levels can be classified into which of the following categories?

  • A. Unaware, Resistant, Neutral, Supportive, Leading
  • B. Passive, Active, Neutral, Supportive, Leading
  • C. Supportive, Resistant, Unaware, Leading, Satisfied
  • D. Neutral, Active, Passive, Leading, Supportive

Answer: A. Unaware, Resistant, Neutral, Supportive, Leading

Explanation: According to Project Management Institute (PMI), stakeholder engagement levels can be classified into 5 categories – Unaware, Resistant, Neutral, Supportive, and Leading.

Which document captures detailed information such as major requirements, expectations, and potential influence of stakeholders?

  • A. Stakeholder Register
  • B. Stakeholder Analysis
  • C. Project Charter
  • D. Risk Register

Answer: A. Stakeholder Register

Explanation: A Stakeholder Register is a project management document that contains details about the project stakeholders.

True or False: The key objective of managing stakeholders in a project is to meet their expectations as much as possible.

  • True
  • False

Answer: True

Explanation: Managing stakeholders effectively enables project managers to align expectations, increase support from stakeholders and manage potential risks and issues.

Stakeholder’s ability to influence the project depends on what factors?

  • A. Urgency, Legitimacy, Power
  • B. Risk, Uncertainty, Impact
  • C. Requirement, Budget, Schedule
  • D. Communication, Accuracy, Transparency

Answer: A. Urgency, Legitimacy, Power

Explanation: Stakeholder’s influence over a project depends on their urgency (the degree to which stakeholder needs require immediate attention), legitimacy (their involvement is appropriate), and power (the extent to which they have resources—money, time, human resources, knowledge—to influence the project).

What is a key benefit of managing stakeholder engagement?

  • A. Increased costs and increased risks
  • B. Decreased support from stakeholders and increased conflicts
  • C. Increased project performance, support from stakeholders, and reduced risks
  • D. Decreased interest from stakeholders and increased chances of project failure

Answer: C. Increased project performance, support from stakeholders, and reduced risks

Explanation: Effective stakeholder management leads to increased project performance by ensuring support from stakeholders, involving them aggressively and mitigating risks early.

True or False: A stakeholder’s engagement level should always be kept at the highest possible level.

  • True
  • False

Answer: False

Explanation: The desired level of stakeholder engagement varies project-by-project, stakeholder-by-stakeholder. It’s not always practical or necessary to engage all stakeholders at the highest level.

Interview Questions

What is the main objective of collaborating with stakeholders in project management?

The main objective of collaborating with stakeholders in project management is to ensure that their needs, concerns, and inputs are considered when planning and executing the project. This can lead to better project outcomes, more stakeholder buy-in, and improved project success rates.

What are the key strategies for effectively collaborating with stakeholders in a project?

The key strategies include identifying who the stakeholders are, understanding their needs and expectations, keeping them informed about the project’s progress, involving them in decision-making processes, and managing their expectations.

Who are considered stakeholders in project management?

In project management, stakeholders are individuals or groups who have an interest in the outcome of the project. They can include project team members, sponsors, clients, end-users, suppliers, contractors, and sometimes regulatory bodies or the local community.

How does collaboration with stakeholders affect project risk?

Stakeholder collaboration can help in identifying, evaluating and mitigating project risks early. Through this collaboration, diverse views and perspectives about potential project risks can be shared, reducing the possibility of unforeseen problems later on.

How do you manage diverse stakeholder interests and expectations in a project?

By clearly communicating the project objectives and progress, involving them in decision-making, managing expectations through transparency, and mediating conflicts as they arise.

Name the process that identifies people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by a project, to analyze stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project?

The process is called Stakeholder Analysis.

What role does communication play in collaborating with stakeholders?

Communication is critical to stakeholder collaboration. It enables you to deliver updates, gather feedback, and manage expectations. Strong communication can lead to increased trust and engagement from stakeholders.

What tool can be used in project management to prioritize stakeholders based on power, urgency, and legitimacy?

The Stakeholder Salience Model is a tool that can be used to prioritize stakeholders based on these three attributes.

In project management, what is meant by “stakeholder engagement”?

Stakeholder engagement is the process of involving and working alongside stakeholders to meet their expectations, address any concerns or issues, and ensure the success of the project.

What is a Stakeholder Register and what purpose does it serve in project management?

A Stakeholder Register is a document that lists all stakeholders, their contact information, role in the project, and their level of interest and influence. It helps the project manager to effectively manage stakeholder communication and engagement.

Which project management knowledge area is concerned with identifying and managing project stakeholders?

This is the responsibility of the Project Stakeholder Management Knowledge Area.

Why is it important to update the stakeholder register as the project progresses?

It is important to update the stakeholder register as the project progresses because the level of interest, influence, and impact of stakeholders can change over time.

What are stakeholder expectations in project management?

Stakeholder expectations refer to what stakeholders anticipate or believe will be provided or achieved by the project.

What is the Stakeholder Engagement Plan in project management?

The Stakeholder Engagement Plan is a document that outlines strategies for effective engagement of stakeholders throughout the project lifecycle.

In project management, what is the Stakeholder Management Strategy?

The Stakeholder Management Strategy is a plan that outlines how the project team will interact with stakeholders to meet their needs, manage their expectations, and address issues as they arise.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *